Persian philosophy resources

Persian (Farsi) has always been used as a language for philosophy. Written resources from the pre-Islamic period are not many. Later, in many parts of the Islamic world, like other intellectual activities, philosophy flourished, but authors of different religions including Jewish, Christians and Muslims of Turkish, Arab, Persian and many more ethnicities utilized Arabic as a common language for their scientific and philosophical research and correspondence, like English is used today in the academic world.

So, many natively Persian speaking philosophers like Farabi (872–950), Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) (980–1037), Ghazali (1055–1111), Suhrawardi (1154–1191), Razi (1149–1209), Rumi (1207–1273), Tusi (1201–1274), Shirazi (1236–1311) and many more used to write their original works in Arabic, but maintained a small number of works in Persian. While the concept of “Arabic Philosophy” maybe a correct description of these works relating them to the language they are written in, the occasionally used concept of “Arab Philosophers” is thus a bit misleading. As time passed, more and more original texts appeared in Persian such as the works of Mulla Sadra (1572–1641), Feyz Kashani (1598–1680) and many more to follow, who wrote their main works in Persian.

The Sadra tradition continues down to the 21st century and the field of philosophy is as active as never before. Meanwhile hundreds of research papers appear each year in original Persian.

Here is an incomplete list of active academic journals that publish current philosophical research in Persian (Farsi) language. The body of their texts are in Persian while most of the article information (title, authors, keywords, abstract and references) are also available in English:

Journals on philosophy:

Journals on history of philosophy:

Journals on philosophy of arts:

  • Kimiya-ye-Honar: The Quarterly Periodical of The Advanced Research Institute of the Arts

Journals on philosophy of science:

Journals on philosophy of religion:


Modern Persian contains a lot of loan words from the Arabic language and philosophy is not an exception. So while reading philosophy in Persian, it is always worth it to check the excellent Online Dictionary of Arabic Philosophical Terms by Lammer and Kretz, specially if you are dealing with older texts, because even in original Persian works, many philosophers made and still make an ample use of Arabic loan words in their texts. It goes without saying that the amazing project Arabic Almanac is one of the best dictionaries for serious philosophical research out there.

Since I have been studying philosophy mainly in English and German, while reading a couple of articles from the journals mentioned above, I realized that some of the expressions used in current Persian philosophical research papers are quite new to me, as some, due to the dynamic nature of Persian language are quite novel in their structure and do not resemble any other expression one might be familiar with like the Arabic loan words. For me it was almost like a fun language game (pun intended) to find Persian equivalents to those expressions I encounter in my daily research in English and German texts. So I decided to make a small dictionary here as a reference in case it might be helpful for others as well. I will keep the list updated.

English فارسی
doctrine آموزه‌
logical positivists اثبات‌گرایان منطقی
positivism اثبات‌گرایی
unrecognizability احرازناپذیری
ethics اخلاق
moral اخلاقی
perception ادراک حسی
perceptions ادراکات
free will ارادۀ آزاد
relationship ارتباط
citation ارجاع‌دهی
value ارزش
moral values ارزش های اخلاقی
main pillars ارکان اصلی
theories استدلال‌ها
metaphor استعاره
transcendental استعلایی
perfection استکمال
firm استوار
demonstratives اسم اشاره
intersubjective community اشتراک بین­الاذهانی
axioms اصول
intention التفات
mere intention التفات خالص
pattern الگو
exclusivism انحصارگرایی
revolutionary انقلابی
denying انکار
illeity اوبودگی
primary اولیه
explanation ایضاح
identity این‌همانی
by adopting this view با این نگاه است که
reinterpretation بازتفسیر
reinterpretation بازتفسیر
ancient باستان
evidence بداهت
provoke برانگیختن
indirect argument برهان غیرمستقیم
externalism برون‌گرایی
intersubjective بین­ الاذهانی
liar paradox پارادوکس دروغگو
phenomenology پدیدارشناسی
phenomenon پدیدۀ
research on پژوهشی در باب
dynamism پویایی
a priori پیشین
end notes پینوشت
link پیوند
synthetic تألیفی
explain تببین
empiricism تجربه‌باوری
lived experience تجربۀ زیستۀ
embodiment تجسد
incarnation تجسد
fulfillment تحقق
analysis تحلیل
specialization تخصص­گرایی
imagination تخیل
fictional تخیلی
submission تسلیم
explicitly تصریحاً
transcendence تعالی
interactive تعاملی
determinism تعین‌گرایی
separation تفکیک
implicitly تقدیراً
explain تقریر
reading تقریرهای
non-reducibility تقلیل ناپذیری
empty تهی
modern جدید
worldview جهان‌بینی
de dicto جهت جمله ای
de re جهت شیئی
essence جوهر
substatial جوهری
present challenge چالش پیش رو
outlook چشم‌انداز
abstract چکیده
frame چهارچوب
bearer of truth حامل صدق
medial motion حرکت توسطیه
substantial motion حرکت جوهری
traversal motion حرکت قطعیه
goodness حسن
Presence (Anwesenheit) حضور
necessary presence of art حضور ضروری هنر
genuine حقیقی
predication حکم
illuminationist philosophy حکمت اشراق
character خصیصه
reading خوانش
self-consciousness خودآگاهی
self-refering خودارجاع
self-sufficiency خودبسندگی
in itself / for itself در خود/ برای خود
being-in-itself درخودبودن
lecture درس‌گفتار
concern دغدغه­
signification دلالت
mutual دوسویه
twosome دوگانه­ ای
dualism دوگانه‌گرایی
other-consciousness دیگرآگاهیِ
essence ذات
essentialism ذات گرائی
inherent ذاتی
email رايانامە
event رخداد
refutation رد
release رهش یا رهایی
approach رهیافت
stoics رواقیان
psychoanalytic روانکاوانه
narrative روایت
methodology روش‌شناسی
fantacies رویاها
approach رویکرد
perspective زاویه دید
dehumanization زدودن چهرۀ انسانی
context زمینه
profound ژرف
constructivism ساخت‌گرایی
mechanism ساز وکار
sphere سپهر
flow سریان
traditionalism سنت‌گرایی
third person سوم‌شخص
commentator شارح
basis شالوده
radical evil شرّ بنیادین
scepticism شک گرایی
inclusivism شمول‌گرایی
cognition شناخت
intuitive شهودی
enthusiasm of matter in the form شوق هیولی به صورت
false. صادق
truth صدق
formalism صورت‌گرایی
necessity ضرورت
bare reason عقل تنها
knowledge by correspondence علم حصولی
knowledge by presence علم حضوری
cognitive science علوم‌شناختی
causal علّی
main عمده
emotions عواطف
objectivity عینیت
reality عینیت
objectivism عینیت‌گرایی
goal غایت
neglecting غفلت
subject فاعل
agency فاعلیت
supervenience فرارویدادگی
universality فراگیر بودن
assumption فرضیّۀ
comparative philosophy فلسفه تطبیقی
idealist philosophy فلسفۀ ایده ­آلیستی
philosophy of culture فلسفۀ ‌فرهنگ
commensurable قابل قیاس
template قالب
lawfulness قانونمندی
badness قبح
contractualist قرارداد گرایانه
intentionality قصدیت
being a statement قضیه‌بودن
universe کائنات
true. کاذب
pragmatic کاربردشناختی
shortcomings کاستی­ها
pluralism کثرت گرایی
generality کلیت
perfectionist کمال‌طلب
performer کنش‌گر
proposition گزاره
propositional گزاره‌ای
dialog گفتگو
original sin گناه نخستین
de dicto لفظ‌نگر
support مؤیّد
metaphysics مابعدالطبیعۀ
brain in a vat scenario ماجرای مغز در خمره
based on مبتنی بر
origin-ness مبدئیت
analytic metaphysics متافیزیک تحلیلی
assume متبادر کردن
contrasting متضاد
correlated متضایف
mutual متقابل
early متقدم
fiction مجعول
impossible محال
bounds محدوده
audience مخاطب
advocator مدافع
help مدد
advantage مزیت
moral responsibility مسئولیّت اخلاقی‌
common مشترک
de re مصداق‌نگر
correspondence مطابقت
correspondence مطابقت
absolutism مطلق‌انگاری
contemporary معاصر
holds that معتقد است
inexistent معدومی
epistemology معرفت‌شناسی
problem معضل
known-by-itself معلومِ بالذات
known-by-something-else معلومِ بالعرض
sense معنا
semantic معنایی
semanticist معنی‌شناس
criterion معیار
concept مفهوم
conceptualise مفهومسازی
conceptual مفهومی
article مقاله
research article مقاله پژوهشی
popular article مقاله ترویجی
review article مقاله مروری
Frankfurt School مکتب فرانکفورت
ego من
references منابع
ritual مناسک
logician منطق‌دان
point of view منظر
negativity منفیت
effective موثر
component مولفه
desire میل
unconsiousness ناخودآگاه
incompatible ناسازگار
inconsistency ناسازگاری
inadequate ناکافی
conclusion نتیجه
conceptual relativity نسبیت مفهومی
relativized نسبی‌شده
relativism نسبی‌گرایی
semiotics نشانه‌شناسی
institution نظام
regularity نظم
self نفس
criticism نقد
milestone نقطۀ عطفی
attitude نگرش
indexical نمایه‌ای
movement نهضت
emergentism نوخاسته‌گرایی
Light of lights نورالانوار
paper نوشتار
corresponding author نویسنده مسئول
coauthor نویسنده همکار
existence هستی
ontology هستی‌شناسی
coordination هماهنگی
co-referent هم‌مرجع
normativity هنجارمندی
inquiry / analysis واکاوی
being وجود
revelation وحی
context ورطه
certainty یقین